Causes of gum disease

Gum disease can be caused by a number of factors, butpoororal hygiene is the most common cause.

Poor oral hygiene, such as not brushing your teeth properly or regularly, can cause plaqueto build up on your teeth.


Your mouth is full of bacteria thatcombine with saliva to form a sticky film known as plaque, whichbuilds up on your teeth.

When you consume food and drink high in carbohydrates (sugary or starchy foods), bacteria in plaque turn carbohydrates into the energy they need, producing acid at the same time.

Over time, acid in plaque begins to break down your tooth's surface and causes tooth decay.

Other bacteria in plaquecan alsoirritate your gums, making them inflamed and sore.

Plaque is usually easy to remove by brushingand flossingyour teeth, but it can harden and form a substance calledtartarif it's not removed.Tartar sticks much more firmly to teeth than plaque and can usually only be removed by a dentist or dental hygienist.

Who is most at risk?

As well as poor oral hygiene,a number of things can increase your risk of developing problems with your gums. These include:

  • smoking
  • your age gum diseasebecomes more common as you get older
  • a family history of gum disease
  • Diabetes a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar levels to become too high
  • a weakened immune system for example,because ofconditions such as HIV and AIDS orcertain treatments, such as chemotherapy
  • malnutrition a condition that occurs when a person's diet does not contain the right amount of nutrients
  • stress
Content supplied by the NHS Website

Medically Reviewed by a doctor on 28 Nov 2016