Main types of EDS

EDS-hypermobile type is the most common type of EDS. Rarer types include classical EDS, vascular EDS and kyphoscoliotic EDS.

EDS-hypermobile type

EDS-hypermobile type (EDS-HT), also known as hypermobile EDS or EDS type III, is often thought to be the same as or very similar to another condition called joint hypermobility syndrome .

People with EDS-HT may have:

  • joint hypermobility
  • loose, unstable joints that dislocate easily
  • joint pain and clicking joints
  • extreme tiredness (fatigue)
  • skin that bruises easily
  • digestive problems, such as heartburn and constipation
  • dizziness and an increased heart rate after standing up
  • problems with internal organs, such as mitral valve prolapse or organ prolapse
  • problems with bladder control ( stress incontinence )

Currently, there are no tests to confirm whether someone has EDS-HT. The diagnosis is made based on a person's medical history and a physical examination.

Classical EDS

Classical EDS (previously EDS types I and II)is less common than hypermobile EDS and tends to affect the skin more.

Peoplewith classical EDS may have:

  • joint hypermobility
  • loose, unstable joints that dislocate easily
  • stretchy skin
  • fragile skinthat can split easily especially over the forehead, knees, shins and elbows
  • smooth, velvety skin that bruises easily
  • wounds that are slow to heal and leavewide scars
  • hernias and organ prolapse

Vascular EDS

Vascular EDS (previously EDS type IV)is a rare type of EDS and is often considered to be the most serious. It affects the blood vessels and internal organs, which can cause them tosplit openand lead to life-threatening bleeding.

People with vascular EDS may have:

  • skin that bruises very easily
  • thin skin with visible small blood vessels, particularly on the upper chest and legs
  • fragile blood vessels that can bulge or tear, resulting in serious internal bleeding
  • a risk of organ problems, such as the bowel tearing, the womb tearing (in late pregnancy) and partial collapse of the lung
  • hypermobile fingers and toes, unusual facial features, (such as a thin nose and lips, large eyes and small earlobes), varicose veins and delayed wound healing

Kyphoscoliotic EDS

Kyphoscoliotic EDS (previously EDS type VI) is rare.

Peoplewith kyphoscoliotic EDS may have:

  • curvature of the spinethis starts in early childhoodand often gets worse in the teenage years
  • joint hypermobility
  • loose, unstable joints that dislocate easily
  • weak muscle tone from childhood( hypotonia ) thismay cause a delay in sitting and walking, or difficulty walking if symptoms get worse
  • fragile eyesthat can easily be damaged
  • soft, velvety skin that is stretchy, bruises easily and scars
Content supplied by the NHS Website

Medically Reviewed by a doctor on 21 Dec 2018