Type 2 diabetes
If diabetes isn't treated, it can lead to a number of other health problems.
High glucose levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs.
Even a mildly raised glucose level that doesn't cause any symptoms can have long-term damaging effects.
If you have diabetes, you're up to five times more likely to develop Coronary heart disease or have a stroke .
Prolonged, poorly controlled blood glucose levels increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis , where the blood vessels become clogged upand narrowed by fatty substances.
This may result in poor blood supply to your heart, causing angina , which is a dull, heavy or tight pain in the chest.
It also increases the chance that a blood vessel in your heart or brain will become blocked, leading to a heart attack or stroke.
High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels in your nerves.
This can cause a tingling or burning pain that spreads from your fingers and toes up through your limbs.It can also cause numbness, which can lead to ulceration of the feet.
Damage to the peripheral nervous system,which includes all parts of the nervous system that lie outside the central nervous system,is known as peripheral neuropathy .
If the nerves in your digestive system are affected, you may experience nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation .
Diabetic retinopathy is when the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye, becomes damaged.
Blood vessels in the retina can become blocked or leaky, or can grow haphazardly. This prevents light fully passing through to your retina. If it isn't treated, it can damage your vision.
Annual eye checks are usually organised by a regional photographic unit. If significant damage is detected, you may be referred toa doctor who specialises in treating eye conditions (ophthalmologist).
The better you control your bloodglucose levels, the lower your risk of developing serious eye problems.
Diabetic retinopathy can be managed using laser treatment if it's caught early enough. However, this will only preserve the sight you have rather than improve it.
If the small blood vessels of your kidney become blocked and leaky, your kidneys will work less efficiently.
It's usually associated with high blood pressure, and treating this is a key part of management.
In rare, severe cases,kidney diseasecan lead to kidney failure . This can mean a kidneyreplacement, treatment with dialysis or sometimes kidney transplantation becomes necessary.
Damage to the nerves of the foot can meansmall nicks and cuts aren't noticedand this, in combination with poor circulation, can lead to a foot ulcer.
About 1 in 10 people with diabetes get a foot ulcer, which can cause a serious infection.
If you have diabetes, look out for sores and cuts that don't heal, puffiness or swelling, and skin that feels hot to the touch. You should also have your feet examined at least once a year.
If poor circulation or nerve damage is detected, check your feet every day and report any changes to your doctor, nurse or podiatrist.
This can usually be treated with medication.
Women with diabetes may experience:
If you experience a lack of vaginal lubrication or find sex painful, you can use a vaginal lubricant or a water-based gel.
Pregnant women with diabetes have an increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth .
If your bloodglucose level isn't carefully controlled during the early stages of pregnancy, there's also an increased risk of the baby developing a birth defect.
Pregnant women with diabetes will usually have their antenatal check-ups in hospital or a diabetic clinic,ideally witha doctor who specialises in pregnancy care (an obstetrician).
This will allow your care teamto keep a close eye on your blood glucose levels and controlyourinsulin dosage more easily,as well as monitoring thegrowth and development of yourbaby.
The Diabetes UK website has more information about diabetes complications .
The NHS diabetic eye screening programme will arrange for you to have your eyes checked every year.
Everyone who is on a diabetes register will be given the opportunity to have a digital picture taken of the back of their eye. Speak to your GP to register.
Yes, diabetes is considered a risk factor for cardiac problems including a heart attack. Keeping your blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol well controlled will lower your risks quite a bit. Aiming for HbA1c (three-month blood sugar average) less than 7 would be ideal.
There is no convincing data to suggest that all diabetics have poor dental health. But having said that, poorly controlled DM does make one prone to infections and poor health—including dental health. Letting your dentist know that you have DM would be prudent. Given this knowledge about your medical condition, your dentist will be able to choose the correct products for treatment.
Yes, it is true, but not in everybody though. It depends on what degree of diabetes these patients had to start with prior to surgery.
Plant-based carbohydrates such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains and starchy vegetables including beans/lentils. Foods with higher fiber may take longer to digest and decrease the after-meal glucose spikes.
Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease. Fortunately, through management of blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar, your risk for heart-related events can substantially drop. Of these, blood pressure and cholesterol management appear to be more important than blood sugar control (with respect to cardiovascular disease). It is generally recommended that most patients with diabetes in your age group should be on statin-class drugs (types of cholesterol drugs) that are known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Eye exams are recommended annually for most patients. Blood sugar control has the greatest impact in reducing the risk of diabetes-related eye disease. Most patients with diabetes Type 2 are followed by primary care physicians (such as internists and family physicians). Those with more complex issues may need to be referred to an endocrinologist.
Cleveland Clinic has many locations that offer diabetes education classes, including a new, conveniently located, free standing Diabetes Center in the University Circle area. Topics covered includenutrition, education, meter and insulin injection instructions, basic education about the disease state, and insulin pumps. Group and individual sessions are available.
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body's cells don't react to insulin. This means glucose stays in the blood and isn't used as fuel for energy.
Read about the symptom of diabetes, including feeling very thirsty, passing more urine than usual, and feeling tired all the time.
Read about the causes of type 2 diabetes, which occurs when the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal blood glucose level, or the body is unable to use the insulin that is produced.
Read about treating type 2 diabetes. Find out how to keep your blood glucose levels as normal as possible by making lifestyle changes, such as eating more healthily and taking more exercise.
Read about complications of type 2 diabetes. Without treatment, it can lead to a number of other health problems. High glucose levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs.
Read about living with type 2 diabetes. If you have type 2 diabetes, you'll need to look after your health very carefully.
After his victory at the 2000 Sydney Olympics, Sir Steve Redgrave became the only British athlete ever to win five consecutive Olympic gold medals.
Clare Mehmet, a 58-year-old retired telecommunications interpreter, found out by chance that she had type 2 diabetes 10 years ago.
When Charles Torkington, 54, was diagnosed with diabetes, it gave him the determination to change his diet and his life.