Type 1 diabetes
If diabetes isn't treated, it can lead to a number of different health problems.
High glucose levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs.
Even a mildly raised glucose level that doesn'tcause any symptoms can have damaging effects in the long term.
Prolonged, poorly controlled blood glucose levels increase the likelihood of developing atherosclerosis (furring and narrowing of your blood vessels).
This may result in a poor blood supply to your heart, causing angina (a dull, heavy or tight pain in the chest).
High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels of your nerves.
This can causea tingling or burning pain that spreads from your fingers and toes up through your limbs. It can also cause numbness, which can lead to ulceration of the feet.
Damage to the peripheral nervous system (the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord) is known as peripheral neuropathy.
Diabetic retinopathy is where the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye, becomes damaged.
The retina needs a constant supply of blood, which it receives through a network of tiny blood vessels. Over time, a persistently high blood sugar level can damage these blood vessels and affect your vision.
Annual eye checks are usually organised by a regional photographic unit. If significant damage is detected, you may be referred to a doctor who specialises in treating eye conditions (ophthalmologist).
The better you control your blood glucose levels, the lower your risk of developing serious eye problems.
Diabetic retinopathy can be managed using laser treatment if it's caught early enough. However, this will only preserve the sight you have rather than improve it.
If the small blood vessels in your kidney become blocked and leaky, your kidneys will work less efficiently.
It's usually associated with high blood pressure, and treating this is a key part of management.
Damage to the nerves of the foot can mean small nicks and cuts aren't noticed and this, in combination with poor circulation, can lead to a foot ulcer.
About 1 in 10 people with diabetes get a foot ulcer, which can cause a serious infection.
If you have diabetes, look out for sores and cuts that don't heal, puffiness or swelling, and skin that feels hot to the touch. You should also have your feet examined at least once a year.
If poor circulation or nerve damage is detected, check your feet every day and report any changes to your doctor, nurse or podiatrist.
This can usually be treated with medication.
Women with diabetes may experience:
If you experience a lack of vaginal lubrication, or you find sex painful, you can use a vaginal lubricant or a water-based gel.
If your blood sugar level isn't carefully controlled immediately before and during early pregnancy, there's also an increased risk of the baby developing a serious birth defect.
Pregnant women with diabetes will usually have their antenatal check-ups in hospital or a diabetic clinic, ideally with a doctor who specialises in pregnancy care (an obstetrician).
This will allow your care team to keep a close eye on your blood glucose levels and control your insulin dosage more easily, as well as monitoring the growth and development of your baby.
Everyone who is on a diabetes register will be given the opportunity to have a digital picture taken of the back of their eye. Speak to your GP to register.
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes can develop very quickly (over a few days or weeks), particularly in children. In older adults, the symptoms can often take longer to develop (a few months).
It's important for diabetes to be diagnosed early so treatment can be started as soon as possible. If you experience the symptoms of diabetes , visit your GP as soon as possible. They'll ask about your symptoms and may request blood and urine tests.
If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll probably need insulin injections. Treatment for diabetes aims to keep your blood glucose levels as normal as possible and to control your symptoms.
If diabetes isn't treated, it can lead to a number of different health problems. High glucose levels can damage blood vessels, nerves and organs. Even a mildly raised glucose level that doesn'tcause any symptoms can have damaging effects in the long term.
If you have type 1 diabetes, you'll need to look after your health very carefully. You have to start eating a healthy balanced diet, exercise regularly, quit smoking, limit your alcohol, etc.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to control the amount of sugar (glucose) in your blood. Type 1 diabetes is often inherited (runs in families), so the autoimmune reaction may also be genetic.
Chandler Bennett was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in October 2004. She maintains a positive attitude to life and has learned to manage her condition.
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Nurse consultant in diabetes, Grace Vanterpool MBE, talks about her work supporting people with diabetes and raising awareness of the condition.
Cricket star Wasim Akrams glittering career included dealing with numerous injuries, clearing his name after match-fixing allegations and coping with type 1 diabetes.