Ideally, a kidney transplant should be performed when tests show that the extent of damage to your kidneys is so great that you'll need Dialysis within the next six months.
However, because of the lack of available kidneys, it's unlikely you'll receive a kidney donation at this time, unless a family member or friend who has a similar tissue type is willing to make a living donation .
Most people with kidney failure need dialysis while they wait for a donated kidney to become available.
The average time a person spends on the waiting list for a kidney transplant is two to three years, although it can be shorter or longer than this.
Demand for donations from recently deceased people far outstrips supply, so there are strict but necessary guidelines about how donations are allocated.
Children and young adults are generally given priority if a matched donation becomes available, as they'll most likely gain a longer-term benefit from a transplant.
For older adults, a scoring system is used to determine who should get a donation. The score is based on factors such as how long you've been on the waiting list and how well matched the donor is in terms of tissue type, blood group and age.
If you're on the waiting list for a kidney, the transplant centre will need to contact you at short notice once a kidney becomes available, so you must inform staff if there are any changes to your contact details.
You should also inform staff if there are changes to your health for example, if you develop an infection.
While waiting for a donated kidney to become available, it's important to stay as healthy as possible by:
Make sure you always have an overnight bag ready for when the call comes, and make arrangements with friends, family and work soyou can go to the transplant centre as soon as a donor kidney becomes available.
In England, there are 20 NHS specialist kidney transplant centres. Six centres are in London, and a further 14 are in the following cities:
Read about what happens during a kidney transplant .
Read about kidney transplants, including who can have them, what they involve and what the risks are.
Read about waiting for a kidney transplant, including how long the average wait is, how donor kidneys are allocated, and where you might go for your transplant.
Read about what happens during a kidney transplant, including what to do when you're contacted by the transplant centre and what the procedure involves.
Healthy lifestyle tips for people who have had a kidney transplant, including dietary advice and information about the medication you'll need to take.
Read about the main risks of a kidney transplant, including those associated with the procedure itself, plus the medication you need to take and potential problems with the kidney itself.
Ivy Ashworth-Crees talks about how much better her life is since her double kidney and pancreas transplant.
When Dr Carole Angeldonated akidneytoher brother, Paul Whitaker, she was able to go home just 48 hours after surgery.
Double kidney transplant recipient Riminder Dosanjhspentfour years waiting for a transplantwith no kidneys in her body at all.