The treatment options for a heart attack depend on whether you've had an ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), or another type of heart attack.

A STEMI is the most serious form of heart attack and requires emergency assessment and treatment. It's important you're treated quickly to minimise damage to your heart.

If you have symptoms of a heart attack and an electrocardiogram (ECG) shows you have a STEMI, you'll be assessed for treatment to unblock the coronary arteries.

The treatment usedwill depend on when your symptoms started and how soon you can access treatment.

  • If your symptoms started within the past 12 hours you'll usually be offered primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
  • If your symptoms started within the past 12 hours but you can't access PCI quickly you'll be offered medicationto break down blood clots.
  • If your symptoms started more than 12 hours ago you may be offered a different procedure, especially if symptoms have improved. The best course of treatment will be decided after an angiogram and may include medication, PCI orbypass surgery.

Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

Primary PCI is the term for emergency treatment of STEMI, usinga procedure to widen the coronary artery ( Stent insertion ).

Coronary angiography is performed first to assess your suitability for PCI.

You may also be given blood-thinning medicationto prevent further clots from developing, such as:

  • aspirin
  • heparin
  • clopidogrel
  • prasugrel
  • ticagrelor
  • bivalirudin

Some of these medications may be continued for some timeafter PCI.

Coronary angioplasty

Coronary angioplasty is apotentially complex type of procedure that requires specialist staff and equipment, and not all hospitals have the facilities.

This means you'll need to be taken urgently, by ambulance, to one of the specialist centres (Heart Attack Centres) that now serve most of the UK's regions.

During coronary angioplasty, a tiny tube known as a balloon catheter, with a sausage-shaped balloon at the end, is put into a large artery in your groin or arm. The catheter is passed through your blood vessels and up to your heart, over a fine guidewire, using X-rays to guide it, before being moved into the narrowed section of your coronary artery.

Once in position, the balloon is inflated inside the narrowed part of the coronaryartery to open it wide. A stent (flexible metal mesh) is usually inserted into the artery to help keep it open afterwards.

Medication to break down blood clots

Medicationsused to break down blood clots, known asthrombolyticsor fibrinolytics, are usually given by injection.

Thrombolytics, or fibrinolytics, target and destroy a substance called fibrin. Fibrin is a tough protein that makes up blood clots by acting like a sort of fibre mesh that hardens around the blood.

Some examples of these types of medications include:

  • reteplase
  • alteplase
  • streptokinase

You may also be given an additional medication called a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor if it is thought you have an increased risk of experiencing another heart attack at some point in the near future.

Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors don't break up blood clots, but they prevent blood clots from getting bigger. They're an effective method of stopping your symptoms getting worse.

Coronary artery bypass graft

A coronary angioplasty may not be technically possible sometimes if the anatomy of your arteries is different from normal. This may be the case if there are too many narrow sections in your arteries or if there are lots of branches coming off your arteries that are also blocked.

In such circumstances, an alternative surgicaloperation, known as a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) , may be considered. A CABG involves taking a blood vessel from another part of your body, usually your chest or leg, to use as a graft.

The graftbypasses any hardened or narrowed arteries in the heart. A surgeon will attach the new blood vessel to the aorta and the other to the coronary arterybeyond the narrowed area or blockage.

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Heart attack
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Medically Reviewed by a doctor on 16 Nov 2016