Treatment for gout includespain relief to help you cope with a gout attack, as well asmedication and lifestyle changes to prevent further attacks.
Apply the ice pack to your joint for around 20 minutes. Don't apply ice directly to your skin and don't apply it for more than 20 minutes at a time because this could damage the skin.
If necessary, you can keep reapplying an ice pack to your skin during an attack, but you should wait until your skin has returned to a normal temperature first.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are usually recommended as the firsttreatment for gout. They work by reducing pain and inflammation during an attack.
NSAIDs used to treat gout include naproxen, diclofenac and etoricoxib.
If you've been prescribed NSAIDs, it's a good ideato have them with you at all times so you can use them at the first sign of a gout attack. Continue to take your medication throughout the attack and for 48 hours afterwards.
Your GP may also prescribe a medication called a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), to take alongside your NSAID. Thisreduces the risk of the NSAID causing indigestion , stomach ulcers and bleeding from the stomach.
If you're unable to take NSAIDs or if NSAIDs are ineffective, a medicine calledcolchicine can be used instead.
Colchicine reduces some of the swelling and pain associated with a gout attack.
It's best to have it with you at all times so you can use it at the first sign of a gout attack. Your GP will tell you how long to take it for and how often.
When taken in high doses, side effects of colchicine include feeling sick, abdominal (tummy) pain and diarrhoea .
Corticosteroids are sometimes used to treat severe cases of gout if other treatments don't work or you're unable to take an NSAID or colchicine.
A short course of steroid tablets often provides relief, but they can't be used long-term in high doses as they cause side effects, including:
Corticosteroids can also be given by injection to provide rapid pain relief. This can be either into a muscle, a vein or directly into the affected joint.
You can reduce your chances of having further gout attacks by taking medication and making lifestyle changes toreduce the level ofuric acid in your body.
Medication to reduce uric acid levels known as urate-lowering therapy (ULT) is usually recommended if you have recurrent attacks of gout or you have complications of gout .
Most people with gout will eventually need to have ULT, so you may want to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this treatment with your doctor as soon as you've been diagnosed with gout.
They should explain that while ULT can significantly reduce your risk of having further attacks, the medication needs to be taken on a daily basis for the rest of your life and there's a small risk of side effects.
If you decide to start ULT, a medicine called allopurinol is usually tried first. If this isn't suitable or doesn't work, other medications may be used instead. These medications are described below.
Allopurinolhelps reduce the production of uric acid. It can help prevent gout attacks, although it won't help relieve symptoms during an attack.
Allopurinol is a tablettaken once a day.When you first start taking it, your dose will be adjusted to make sure the level of uric acid in your blood is low enough. Regular blood tests will be needed to monitor this until themost effective dose is found.
Allopurinol can sometimes cause a gout attack soon after you start taking it and itcan take up to a year or two before no further attacks occur. It's important to persevere with treatment even if you do have attacks during this time.
To helprelieve attacks, your doctor will prescribe one of the pain relieving medications described above to take alongside your allopurinol at first.
Most people taking allopurinol won't experience any significant side effects. However, side effects can include:
Like allopurinol, febuxostatis a medication taken once a day thatreduces the body's production of uric acid. It's often used if allopurinol isn't suitable or causes troublesome side effects.
As with allopurinol, febuxostat can make your symptoms worse when you first start taking it. Your doctor will initially prescribe one of the pain relieving medications described in case you experience attacks.
Side effects of febuxostat can include:
Less commonly used ULT medications include benzbromarone and sulfinpyrazone.
These types of medication tend to only be used if people are unable to take allopurinol or febuxostat. They need to be prescribed under the supervision of a specialist.
Certain lifestyle changes can also help reduce your risk of experiencing further attacks of gout, including:
There's some evidence to suggest that taking regular vitamin C supplements can reduce gout attacks, although the effectmay only be small. Talk to your GP first if you're thinking about taking vitamin C supplements, as they aren't suitable or safe for everyone.
There is no direct connection, but some gout medications can cause hyperglycemia.
Read about gout, a type of arthritis where crystals form inside and around joints. Find out about the symptoms, causes and treatments.
The most common symptom of gout is sudden and very severe pain in one or more of your joints.
Find out about the main causes of gout, and read about what can increase your risk, such as your diet, medications and family history.
Read about how gout is diagnosed, including what your GP may ask and what tests may be carried out.
Read about the main treatments for gout, including ways to relieve pain during an attach and prevent attacks occurring in the first place.
Read about the possible complications of gout, including small lumps under the skin (tophi), joint damage and kidney stones.
Read the story of Gina Beauchamp, who was diagnosed with gout in her late 30s.
Read the story of Patrick Hanmer, who was 32 and living life to the full when he had his first attack of gout.